Weed-Walking

Cleavers
Cleavers, traditional anti-spasmodic, lymphatic tonic and diuretic

We need to rethink our attitude to weeds. Wild greens are high in phytonutrients, the chemical compounds that act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories in human health. Many are deep-rooted and bring minerals and micronutrients into their leaves and flowers. Their dark berries and medicinal properties offer a compendium of nutritional or healing benefits cast aside with the advent of industrial agriculture and profit-oriented pharmaceuticals. Cretan cuisine, on which the Mediterranean Diet was modeled, features freshly gathered wild greens, which may have as much to do with the heart-protective effect of the diet as the olive oil, fresh produce and seafood. Having once experienced a wild greens forage in Crete, I was charmed to have the chance to experience an urban Victoria version.

Gather Victoria is the clever and creative partnership of two aspiring herbalists, Jennifer Aikman and Danielle Prohom Olson, whose mission is to share what they know about the wild edibles growing on our doorstep. To this end they offer periodic tours and tastings in Victoria.

So, last weekend, in the company of a dozen or so like-minded others, I braved a chilly damp afternoon picking weeds from lawns and alleyways.

We started off with the easiest to identify – dandelion. Its leaves, in spring, before the flower buds, make excellent salad greens. Its roots, peeled and roasted, are a well known coffee substitute. But also, as Jennifer observed, the roasted root can add a boost to baking (we had dandelion-enhanced brownies later), and bitter leaves – added to smoothies or stir fries? – are helpful for the liver (stimulating bile production). She takes a daily tincture of dandelion root to this end. Danielle showed us cat’s ear, commonly confused with dandelion. Its (young) leaves are also edible, though a bit hairy, in salads, stir-fries or pesto, and its flower buds make good capers. The root can also be roasted.

JenniferDigsDandelionRoot JenniferDandelionLeaf DaniellewithCatsEar

 

We moved on to violets – like dandelion, introduced by colonists and now running rampant. Their flowers are versatile: handsome additions to salads that can also be crystallized into candies, infused and made into jellies and syrups. The mucilaginous leaves too can be cooked or added to salads. Yarrow, frequently confused with wild carrot, can be identified by its white (or pink) flower. Its leaves have many medicinal properties and as an herb it pairs well with meat and soups. German chamomile is well known as a tea (dried flowers and leaves); its leaves can be used in salads, and its flower centres pickled.

VioletFlowerbud Yarrow GermanChamomile

 

 

 

Mallow (Malva parviflora, “cheeseweed”) root can be infused as a remedy for joint pain; its greens are edible and somewhat mucilaginous, ideal for holding together veggie burgers. The fruiting heads (“cheese wheels“) are crisp and slightly gummy pea-like morsels. Mahonia (Oregon grape) has tart, edible yellow flowers and very tart blue-black fruit, which makes excellent jellies and syrups. We found an ornamental variety in full bloom; Mahonia Nervosa (wild variety) root has valuable medicinal properties.

MallowCheeseWheelPeeled  MallowCheeseWheelJenniferMadrona

 

Plantain is known by First Nations people as “White man’s footsteps” so merrily has it spread in the wake of colonists. Its leaves can serve as a spinach substitute or salad green, and the plant has an ancient history as a medicinal cure-all. We all know holly berries are toxic (a powerful purgative, in fact) but its leaves make a fine, astringent tea. Jennifer chops the leaves and steeps them overnight. Nettles are probably one of the best known wild foods, a popular tea, boasting its own springtime festivals, pesto and soup recipes. Jennifer recommends harvesting only the top buds, preferably in the spring, and never when the plant is going to seed; at that point, harvest the seeds which are adaptogens, and high in protein. PlantainLeaves   JenniferHollyNettleTopCalendulaBackground

 

Chickweed is a fairly well known salad green, a little like a particularly flavoursome baby spinach; and Miner’s Lettuce seems to change its shape later in the season – lilypad shaped over the summer, surrounding its tiny white flower, it looks simply heart-shaped in fall. It’s been adopted by Slow Food’s Ark of Taste as one of Canada’s defining regional foods, so you are likely to find it on the menus of locavore restaurants. White clover, a legume which benefits our lawns by fixing nitrogen, is an edible flower which can be dried and ground into a high-protein pea flour with, yes, medicinal properties.

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Curly or yellow dock seed is another source of flour: this wild buckwheat can be ground, chaff and seeds; its leaves used as pot herbs in soups and stews. The leaves do contain oxalic acid so should be consumed raw in limited quantities for those prone to calcium oxalate kidney stones, but cooking renders them a bit safer in this regard.

DanielleTwoKindsDockLeavesDanielleDockSeed DockSeed

There was more, much more: daisy buds can be pickled for capers; milk thistle, shorn of spines, can be cooked as a green or used in soups and stews, its seeds a long-valued liver treatment; grand fir, its flavour like grapefruit, makes a tea or custard flavouring; elderberries, most famous for wine, make an excellent syrup to ward off colds, their flowers made into cordials; borage flowers can be candied, and leaves dried for tea; licorice fern root-infused honey can be used for coughs and the root dried for candy; sumac buds, soaked overnight make ‘sumac lemonade’; shepherd’s purse is a delicious salad or cooked green; and Hawthorn, which can be used (without seeds) as a tincture for cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation, and as a fruit for jams and ketchups.

GrandFir BlackElderberry Borage LicoriceFernRoot  LambsQuarters

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And at last we headed indoors, out of the chill, to warm ourselves on herbal teas and a magnificent spread of wild comestibles. My particular favourites were the hung cheeses (made from strained Greek Yogurt and flavoured with wild herbs) on fennel crackers with black hawthorn ketchup. An excellent afternoon’s work, and I’m much looking forward to the next gathering.

WildFoodSpread WildCrumbCakeHungCheese WildCondiments

New year, new herbs

Herb table at London's Garden Museum
Herb table at London’s Garden Museum

Happy 2015! And welcome to my new blog and new business. I’ve been a food & poetry blogger for many years, but now that I’ve qualified as a Registered Holistic Nutritionist, I’m starting up this blog to capture the nittier grittier side of food and nutrition.

I’ve been in the UK for a few weeks and a recent visit to London’s Garden Museum made me think a bit about the many properties of herbs.

The museum’s own garden is in its winter sleep, by and large, but outside the cafe door is a small table of herbs, showing a simple and elegant way to grow your own. In Permaculture design, such herbs are always placed within easy reach of the kitchen, which seems obvious, but isn’t always part of the plan. Herbs are a great thing for novice gardeners to grow because they are usually fairly hardy, self-seeding or perennial, and more or less immune from interference by pests and grazing animals. Some of them grow a little too well (mint and lemon balm for example can go berserk with little prompting) so a container, or series of large pots are recommended.

While we tend to think of herbs as flavourings, they have medicinal and nutritional benefits too. A handful of common, easy-growing herbs and uses include:

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) – a calming, soothing herb, promoting sleep, easing indigestion and boosting the immune system. Take fresh or dried as a tea.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) – a good source of vitamin A, it’s an antioxidant, aids indigestion and concentration, eases anxiety and stress. Infuse in hot water for tea, sprinkle in your bath water and of course ingest in Mediterranean cuisine.

Sage (Salvia officinalis) – anti-inflammatory, soothing to the digestive tract, antioxidant, memory enhancer, may help to control blood sugar and an excellent source of vitamin K1. Fresh leaves are delicious crisped in butter and tossed with pasta; it complements squash, game, poultry and pork dishes.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) – antimicrobial, antioxidant; it eases digestion and gas, soothes sore throats and respiratory problems. Add to tea mixes or lavish in your bean, egg and vegetable dishes. Nutritionally, it is an excellent source of vitamin C, a very good source of vitamin A, and a good source of iron, manganese, copper, and dietary fiber.